Undergraduate Course Descriptions

 

GEOG 10100 People and Their Environment -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Hunter Core Individual and Society (Social Science). GER 2/B.
A broad overview of subjects and ideas in geography, possibly the most internally diverse of the social sciences.  Covers the geographical aspects of topics including weather and climate, landforms, religions, food, cities, economics, culture, politics and much more. While students will be expected to understand the basics of each of the topics covered, the overarching emphasis will be on understanding the relationships among them. As such, the course builds from one topic to the next, ultimately stressing the sheer geographical complexity and wonder of modern life. interact with it. Contemporary economic, politi­cal and social patterns and problems are discussed.

GEOG 15000 World Regional Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: ENGL 12000. GER 2/B. PD/A or D.
A survey of the world’s major regions. Geographic concepts and principles are used to study the physical, economic, social and political conditions and problems in the culturally diverse world. Spatial expression of culture; specialized behavior patterns; adaptations and way of life in distinct environments. Regional interdependence; implications for development.

GEOG 18300 Special Topics: Introductory Geosciences -- 3 hrs, 3 cr.
Introductory special topics in geography, environmental geosciences, or spatial sciences.

GEOG 22100 Economic Geography and Globalization -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100 or permission of instructor. GER 2/B. Not open to freshmen.
An introduction to the sub-discipline of economic geography, which will include an exploration of the history of both economics and geography, and a rigorous global approach to the subjects. Students will come to understand the history of the development of economic thought, leading up to, and transformed, by today’s crisis, as well as the particularly geographical nature of economic phenomena and processes, and the immense contributions geographers have made to the understanding of economics. Course focus is on the dominant form of global economic activity today, which is capitalistic, and the way this economic structure plays out through different geographies at different historical moments in time.

GEOG 22600 Environmental Conservation: Resource Management -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. GER 2/B.
Introduces students to environmental studies with a focus on policy and management of resources. The course will examine issues pertaining to sustaining our resource base (biodiversity, food, soil, water and energy), a review of factors influencing sustainable use, and how humans have impacted these key elements of the natural system.

GEOG 22700 Environmental Conservation: Urban Problems -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. GER 3/B.
Covers topics related to environmental problems and their connection to urban areas. The course will begin with a survey of urban systems (transport, water, food, waste and energy) followed by investigating how these systems contribute to environmental problems and their solutions. This investigation will also include a discussion about the connections between rural and urban areas and urban planning that attempts to minimize environmental hazards.

GEOG 24100 Population Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B. PD/B or C.
Course will explore several critical issues such as the relationship between population growth and development; immigration and internal migration; how age, race and gender affect other demographic processes; and how and why these processes vary around the world. Additionally, students will examine the “mechanics” of computing population growth and change as well as different ways to visually display measures of population.

GEOG 24200 Medical Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq or coreq: GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
This subfield integrates human and physical geography. Two major themes are disease ecology (relationship of disease to natural and human environment) and spatial/social aspects of provision of medical care in society. The course will examine the concepts and methodologies that form the basis of the discipline.

GEOG 24300 Urban Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000 or permission of instructor, Jr/Sr only. GER 3/B.
Spatial analysis of functions of metropolitan areas. Social and economic characteristics of cities and suburbs. Land use and transportation patterns.

GEOG 24400 Political Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
Political geography concerns the nature and consequences of human efforts to divide and control Earth. Major topics to be covered by this course include the origin and evolution of countries and their constituent political units; the defining and drawing of political boundaries; territorial conflicts and disputes; the impact of boundaries on personal and cultural identity; centripetal and centrifugal forces that encourage the success or failure of political units; jurisprudence, crime and punishment; electoral geography; war, piracy and terrorism; ownership of ocean floors and outer space; the environmental impacts of political power (zoning, incorporation, height restrictions, land tenure); and symbols of power in the landscape. Lectures and assignments will stress the relevancy of political geography to issues that affect our everyday life.

GEOG 24500 Geography of Development -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: ENGL 12000, and GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000 or permission of instructor.
Introduction to geographic concepts, methods, and theories of development, as well as failures and challenges for development in a changing world.

GEOG 24700 Cultural Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: ENGL 12000, GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000. Jr/Sr only. GER 3/B.
This course provides an overview of the field of cultural geography. It will cover the basics as well as recent developments in social and cultural geographic theory. The main focus is to understand relationships between cultures and environments through geographical analyses of processes, landscapes, and identities. 

GEOG 25000 Geographic Research Methods -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: ENGL 12000 and a 100-level GEOG, PGEOG, GTECH, or GEOL course.
Introduction to geographic theories and research methods, with a focus on social and cultural geographic research. Lectures, hands-on exercises, collaborative projects.

GEOG 30500 Special Topics in Urban and Regional Dynamics -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 24300 or permission of instructor, Jr/Sr only.
Advanced topics in urban geography. Topics will vary.

GEOG 30600 Special Topics in Contemporary Regional Geographies -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 15000 or permission of instructor, Jr/Sr only.
Advanced topics in contemporary regional geographies and globalization. Topics will vary.

GEOG 32100 Transportation Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 22100 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
A geographic study and modeling of transportation routes and their influences on the location of economic activity.

GEOG 32800 Urban Environmental Problems: Evaluations and Solutions -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000 or URBS 10100. Jr/Sr only. GER 3/B.
The special environmental problems of urban and metropolitan areas will be studied, including water supplies, waste management, environmental impact and waterfront use. Natural physical processes, methodologies and techniques will be reviewed and applied to decision making. Transportation fee for field work may be required.

GEOG 33500 International Pollution Issues -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100 or GEOL 10100 or PGEOG 13000 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
A study of international trans-boundary pollution and the science, source terms, transport pathways and international impacts of contamination events. The regional focus will change yearly pending current global environmental events.

GEOG 34200 Geography of International Migration and Ethnicity -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 24100 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B. PD/B.
Quantitative and qualitative examination of historic and contemporary international migration patterns. Spatial demographic impacts of immigration policy in the United States with a focus on major urban centers. Comparative analysis of ethnic and racial minorities in the United States.

GEOG 34300 Urban Geographic Theory -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 24300 or equivalent. GER 3/B.
Spatial analysis of contemporary and theoretical issues concerning the economic growth, transportation, land use, social segregation and political fragmentation in metropolitan areas.

GEOG 35700 Geography of New York City and Vicinity -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100, Jr/Sr only. GER 3/B.
Informed immersion in NYC is the main objective of this course. Students will learn by exploration and observation more than by media. The city is the laboratory to complement readings, lectures and discussion. Students will emerge from this class with an enhanced appreciation of the entire city. Study assignments include keeping a journal of walking assignments as well as readings. Field work will focus on the five boroughs of New York City. (Students with difficulties in walking or using public transportation or who have phobias regarding unfamiliar neighborhoods should consider this before registering.) 

GEOG 37000 Geography of Sustainable Development in Developing Countries -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: one of the following: GEOG 10100, GEOG 15000, GEOG 27000, GEOG 27100, GEOG 27500, GEOG 27700 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B. PD/A.
Reviews the theories and approaches of international development. Themes include development theory, availability and distribution of resources, population growth, food production, water supply and forestry. The course will also highlight the development and environmental problems that challenge the achievement of sustainable development such as population growth, food and world economic crises, increasing number of the poor and climate change. The course will provide students with theory, methods, problems and analysis of factors that influence sustainable development in developing countries.

GEOG 37100 Rural Water Supply in Developing Regions -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100, GEOG 15000, GEOG 27000, GEOG 27100, GEOG 27500, GEOG 27700 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B. PD/A.
Covers concepts, methods and analysis of rural water utilization and related problems and challenges in developing countries. It will discuss water management and quality and their relationship with sanitation and hygiene education. The course will also discuss methods of providing drinking water in a sustainable manner.

GEOG 372 Field Geography of Peru -- 90 hrs of fieldwork, 3 cr. Prereq: acceptance into Peru Study Abroad Program. Coreq: GEOG 271 or permission of department. GER 3/B.
Regional field study of the geography of Peru. Topics include physical, environmental, historical, cultural, urban, political, agricultural, religious and economic geographies in various ecological zones. Taught in English. Fee for transportation and accommodations required. Completing GEOG 101 or GEOL 101 or PGEOG 130 prior to enrollment is strongly recommended.

GEOG 38000 Seminar in Geographic Concepts and Methodology -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
An investigation of the evolution, conceptual framework, and methodological approaches of modern geography. Course goals are: increase student competence and marketability as a teacher; review content of geography with teaching in mind; share strategies, ideas activities (as befits a seminar course); familiarization with national and state standards; develop and acquire appropriate classroom-ready materials; acquire a classroom-ready photo collection; explore links to other subjects; and develop appropriate bibliographies of children’s literature and websites.

GEOG 38100, 38200, 38300 Special Topics in Geography -- 1-4 hrs (lec or lec/lab), 1-3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100, 200-level course of which special topic is logical outgrowth, permission of instructor, Jr/Sr only. GER 3/B.
Topics to be announced.

GEOG 38392 Ethnic Geography of Hawaii -- winter session, 3 cr. Prereq: permission of department. Acceptance into Hunter College Study Abroad Program and fee for transportation, accommodations required.
Lecture and field examination of historical and contemporary ethnic geographies of Hawaii, particularly in relation to land tenure, land use, immigration, the sugar plantation economy, annexation, and stathood. Ethnic landscapes and ethnic economies of the Honolulu metropolitan area.

GEOG 38500 Geographic Studies in the Field -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: Vary by course.
Geographic Studies in the Field course offered either through the department or in conjunction with Education Abroad, taught primarily outside the formal classroom.

GEOG 39100, 39200, 39300 Individual Study in Geography -- 1-3 cr. Prereq: 2 semesters of geography, permission of department.
Individual studies and readings, with lab or fieldwork where appropriate, carried out under faculty guidance.

GEOG 48000 Capstone in Urban and Social Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: Senior standing as a geography major, approval of undergraduate adviser, and signed project contract with faculty sponsor.
Individual or group research project as capstone experience in urban and social geography.

GEOG 48100 Capstone in Sustainability Studies -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: Senior standing as a geography major, approval of undergraduate adviser, and signed project contract with faculty sponsor.
Individual or group research project as capstone experience in Sustainability Studies.

GEOG 49000 Honors in Geography -- 1 sem, 3 cr. Prereq: permission of department. Upper Jr/Sr geography majors only.
Individual research to be carried on under faculty guidance. Results must be embodied in an honors essay or equivalent.

GEOG 49800 Internship in Geography -- 1-4 cr. Open to qualified geography majors and minors, upper Jr/Sr only.
Opportunities for working in positions of responsibility in professional institutions for academic credit. See undergraduate adviser.

GEOL 10000 Introduction to Geology -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Hunter Core Scientific World (SW). GER 2/E.
Introduction to Geology is the study of the physical aspects of our planet. The goal of this course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the forces continuously shaping the surface of our planet and the influence they have on our environment, so that their appreciation and interest in our planet is heightened. At the same time, this course provides a strong fundamental background for students who want to pursue more advanced geological and environmental studies courses.

GEOL 10100 Introduction to Geology Lab -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Hunter Core Life & Physical Sciences. GER 2/E.
Hands-on study of science, scientific method, scientific language and thought, regarding the earth, earth materials and the major geologic processes that continuously shape and reshape our dynamic planet surface. Guided study of minerals and rocks, geological structures, and the sequence of geologic events.

GEOL 10200 Plate Tectonics and the Earth's Evolution -- 5 hrs. (3 lec, 2 lab), 4 cr. Prereq: GEOL 10100. GER 2/E.
The second course in geology offered to non-geology majors. It is designed to familiarize students with the main concepts used in deciphering and interpreting earth’s evolution from the spatial and temporal perspective. Topics to be covered include: geologic time; geological principles; earth materials as recorders of past geologic processes; depositional environments and sedimentary rock record; igneous and metamorphic geologic environments and their rock records; evolution of the solar system; plate tectonics and life on earth; origin of the universe; life on earth and the fossil record; Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic life, history and tectonics. Field trips may be required; transportation fee.

GEOL 10500 Introduction to Environmental Geoscience -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Hunter Core Scientific World (SW). GER 2/E non-lab. Prereq: ENGL 12000.
Introduction to environmental geoscience focusing on aspects of global change and the interrelationship of earth systems. Review of the evolution of the earth from its origins to potential future developments; environmental problems and issues.

GEOL 18000 Introduction to Oceanography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Hunter Core Scientific World (SW). GER 2/E. Prereq: Math proficient and reading proficient / non degree students.
An introduction to the subject of oceanography. We will discuss the physical, chemical, biological and geological aspects of the oceans; learn about the structure and motion of the atmosphere and how they all influence ocean circulation; and we will learn about waves, tides and tsunamis, the carbon cycle and how the ocean influences the Earth’s climate system. In addition to providing a good introduction to aspects of the scientific world, it is a foundational course for Environmental Studies, Geography and BA/MA Earth Science Education majors.

GEOL 20500 Environmental Geology -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 10100. GER 3/B.
As human populations continue to grow, resource depletion and hazards will become more severe. Many decisions concerning the use of resources, such as water, soil, minerals, energy and space to live, will determine our standard of living and the quality of the environment. Scientific knowledge, combined with human values, will dictate these decisions. This course examines not only the way geological processes operate and impact society, but also how the earth system responds to human activity. The difficult problems associated with extracting enormous quantities of resources needed to sustain modern societies will be discussed. The course will also address ways humans can minimize the risks associated with hazardous earth processes. Quantitative analysis of selected topics will be introduced to provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of today’s environmental issues.

GEOL 211 Field Geology of New York City and Vicinity -- 90 hrs field and lab work, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 101 or GEOL 102. GER 3/B.
Provides you with the essential information about the geology of New York City, plate tectonics, and the philosophy and the practice of geological field work. Students will learn how to use basic field equipment and geologic and topographic maps. The first part of the course consists of field trips using public transportation to the main geologic formations of the New York metropolitan where students examine and identify rocks in situ and non in situ. Basic procedures of geologic field research are taught and students learn to identify, measure, and describe rocks, geologic structures and textures. The second part of the course will be in the laboratory to study the field material, plot information on topographic maps, correlate information and create basic geologic maps, basic geologic profiles and the synthetic geologic column of the NYC Metropolitan area.

GEOL 23100 Principles of Geomorphology -- 4 hrs (2 lec, 2 lab), 3 cr. Prereq: PGEOG 13000 or GEOL 10100. GER 2/E or 3/B.
Investigates the geologic forces that shape the surface of the Earth. In the laboratory students will learn to analyze features of the landscape and deduce the processes that produced them. Students will use traditional laboratories as well as Google Earth to learn about a variety of surficial processes.

GEOL 28000 Marine Geology -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 10200 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
Marine Geology is the study of the seafloor. This course attempts to answer the questions “what?”, “where?”, “when?” and more importantly “how?” in order to better understand the processes that shape the ocean basins and determine the structure and composition of the oceanic crust. The main patterns of sediment distribution in the ocean basins and how sediments preserve a record of past climatic and sea-level changes will be explored. In addition, the role of fluids in ocean sediments and the oceanic crust will be examined. The seafloor sediments will be studied with a focus on their role in marine biogeochemical cycles.

GEOL 33400 Geomorphology: The Study of Beaches and Coasts -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 23100, PGEOG 23100 or equivalent or permission of department. GER 3/B.
A study of the basic processes shaping the coast and the resulting form; surficial morphology and internal geometry of such forms as cliffs, dunes, beaches and near shore bars. Map exercise and a one-day field trip.

GEOL 38000 Advanced Oceanography: Physics of the Oceans -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: one semester CHEM or PHYS, MATH 15000 or equivalent. GER 3/B.
The oceans play a significant role in how the climate system responds to anthropogenic perturbations. To understand past, present and future climate, students need to know and understand the world ocean. Oceanography is multidisciplinary. It offers an opportunity to review and to apply many of the concepts taught in the major traditional disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics. This course will offer an in-depth tour of the complex study of oceanography and an introduction to quantitative methods in oceanography using Matlab. This science-based course requires students to learn and understand, and be willing to work with, physical and quantitative concepts. Students must be prepared to learn the basics of computer scripting/programming syntax and logic, one of the major skills to be acquired in this course.

GEOL 38100, 38200, 38300 Special Topics in Geology and Oceanography -- 1-4 hrs (lec or lec/lab), 1-3 cr. Prereq: 200-level course of which special topic is logical outgrowth, permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
Intensive course in various aspects of geology or oceanography. Topics to be announced.

GEOL 39100, 39200, 39300 Individual Study in Geology -- 1-3 cr. Prereq: 2 semesters of geology, permission of department.
Individual studies and readings, with lab or fieldwork where appropriate, carried out under faculty guidance.

GTECH 10100 Digital Earth -- 3 hrs, 3 cr.
Digital Earth introduces students to the new suite of geospatial technologies and how they are being used to capture, store, process and display the vast amount of geospatial information about our planet, a wide variety of environmental and cultural phenomena, and how this information helps us to better understand natural and cultural characteristics of the world, address world problems, and make sound decisions. Students will learn how satellites take complete photographs of the entire planet, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) display geospatial data, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) track the location of environmental and cultural phenomena, Geovisualization tools map our 3-D planet, and how these technologies are applied to solve problems in diverse fields and phenomena in the physical and social sciences in exciting ways. The knowledge and skills learned in Digital Earth open the door toward a geotechnology-oriented career.

GTECH 20100 Introduction to Geographic Information Science -- 6 hrs (2 lec, 4 lab), 4 cr. Prereq: GEOG 10100 or GEOG 15000 and MATH 10100 or equivalent or permission of instructor. Material Fee: $15.
Introduces the means by which geographers analyze the world to better understand geography and geographical processes. It offers an introduction to various methods for interpreting and analyzing spatial data including, cartography, GIS, remote sensing, spatial statistics and survey research.

GTECH 20300 Introduction to Remote Sensing -- 4 hrs, 4 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20100. Material Fee: $15.
Introduces remote sensing image interpretation and a basic understanding of the use of remote sensing technology in the study of environmental issues and the monitoring of Earth systems. The first half of the course focuses on aerial photography, photogrammetry and image interpretation. The second half focuses on the use of remote sensing in Earth system sciences. Extensive lab exercises include practical assignments and computer-based analysis of remote sensing images. Students will learn basic image interpretation and some web-based image processing skills through various lab exercises.

GTECH 30100 Quantitative Methods in Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20100, STAT 11300 or STAT 21300 or permission of instructor. Jr/Sr only.
Process of spatial analysis. Application of scientific methods to geographic research; sampling; distribution measurement; statistical analysis of spatial data.

GTECH 32100 Remote Sensing of the Environment -- 4 hrs (2 lec, 2 lab), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20300 or permission of instructor. Material Fee: $15.
Focuses on use of satellite images to study the environment and the physical processes involved in remote sensing to better understand the nature and properties of electromagnetic radiation and how it interacts with the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface and a wide variety of satellite sensors. These sensors make measurements in the optical, thermal and microwave electromagnetic spectrums and are used to study issues related to global environmental science and natural resource management. The course includes heavy lab components which will include practical assignments, field exercises, computer-based analysis of remotely-sensed images and the use of image processing software (ENVI) to analyze satellite images. Field measurements will be made in Central Park to facilitate better understanding satellite measurements.

GTECH 32200 Digital Image Processing -- 4 hrs (2 lec, 2 lab), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 32100, and multivariate statistics, elementary linear albegra or permission of instructor.
Course emphasizes the acquisition and nature of digital image data and the tools required to process and analyze remotely sensed data. Topics include: image preprocessing, spectral mixture analysis, image transformation, image classification and accuracy assessment, change detection, information extraction from LIDAR and radar. At least one application for each image processing method will be introduced. This is an advanced remote sensing course. The course includes lab exercises through which students will obtain hands-on experience in digital image processing. The labs include practical assignments and computer-based analysis of remotely-sensed images, and also field work to evaluate the results. The lab will use ENVI, an image processing software, together with the comprehensive data analysis tool IDL.

GTECH 35000 Field Topographic Surveying -- 90 hrs of field/lab work (1 day lab, 10 days field), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20100, permission of instructor.
Field use of surveying equipment. Notebook and computer data collection relating to horizontal and vertical location on the landscape, including the use of global positioning systems. Field record-keeping and preliminary analysis of results. Fee for transportation, accommodations and food allowance required.

GTECH 35100 Field Techniques in Geography -- 90 hrs of field/lab work (3 days lab, 7 days field), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20100, any two additional geography or geology courses, permission of department. Material Fee: $300-400.
Observation and analysis of physical geography, biogeography and geomorphology of selected areas. Field geographic techniques such as ground-truthing of remotely sensed images, the use of maps, compasses and GPS to navigate. Fee for transportation, lodging and food allowance required.

GTECH 36100 GIS Analysis -- 4 hrs (2 lec, 2 lab), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20100. Material Fee: $15.
Advanced principles and operation of GIS, including 3-D, network and field representations and their respective analysis functions. Development of geoprocessing workflows. Geographic information science approaches to geo-spatially relevant methods, including geophysical, landscape ecological, econometric, epidemiological, and regional science.

GTECH 38000 Introdution to Cartographic Design and Geovisualization -- 4 hrs (2 lec, 2 lab), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20100. Material Fee: $15.
This course explores fundamental design concepts and considerations in map production and presentation in the context of GIS. Students will combine computer graphics and cartographic design principles to develop visual representations and analysis of geospatial information.

GTECH 38500 GIS Applications -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 20100 or equivalent. Material Fee: $15.
Selected topics in GIS applications to human and physical geographic problems. See department for topics offered. May be repeated for credit as topics change.

GTECH 48000 Capstone in Geographic Information Science -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: Senior standing, approval of undergraduate adviser, and signed contract with faculty sponsor.
Individual or group research project as capstone experience in geographic information science.

GTECH 49000 Honors in Geographic Information Science -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: Senior standing, a minimum GPA of 3.5 in the major, approval of undergraduate adviser, and signed contract with faculty sponsor. Open to qualified Track C geography majors.
Individual research to be carried on under faculty guidance. Results must be embodied in an honors essay or equivalent.

GTECH 49800 Internship in Geographic Information Science -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: Senior standing, approval of undergraduate adviser, and signed contract with faculty sponsor. Open to qualified geography majors and minors.
Opportunities for working in positions of responsibility in professional institutions for academic credit.

PGEOG 13000 Weather and Climate -- 5 hrs (3 lec, 2 lab), 4 cr. Hunter Core Life and Physical Sciences (LPS); Scientific World (SW). STEM. GER 2/E. Material Fee: $5.
Offers a basic understanding of how weather systems form, why certain regions have particular types of weather patterns, and what is known about climatic fluctuations across the globe. This includes an understanding of the basic physical principals that determine: how hot or cold a particular location is; how seasonal cycles vary in different parts of the world; and the types and amounts of precipitation. Students learn to analyze several types of weather maps and acquire a basic understanding of central issues related to global climate change, one of the most significant environmental issues of our time.

PGEOG 14000 Introduction to Weather, Climate and Climate Change -- 3 hrs, 3 cr.
Offers a basic understanding of how weather systems form, why certain regions have particular types of weather patterns, and what is known about climatic fluctuations across the globe. This includes an understanding of the basic physical principals that determine: how hot or cold a particular location is; how seasonal cycles vary in different parts of the world; and the types and amounts of precipitation. Students learn to analyze several types of weather maps and acquire a basic understanding of central issues related to global climate change, one of the most significant environmental issues of our time.

PGEOG 14100 Introduction to Weather, Climate and Climate Change Laboratory -- 3 hrs, 3 cr.
This is a hands-on laboratory science course. Will explain how weather and climate affect people and the natural environment through hands-on laboratory and field experiences. The course explores the science of the atmosphere starting with weather and weather forecasting including severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. World climates and global climate change is included. This course will serve as an introduction to atmospheric science and will prepare students for further work in geography and Earth sciences.

PGEOG 21200 Geography of Soils and Vegetation -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: PGEOG 13000. GER 3/B.
Nature and distribution of soils and their vegetation cover. Soil characteristics, formation, classification; plant ecology. Interrelationships. Impact on people.

PGEOG 25000 Earth System Science I -- 4 hrs, 3.5 cr. Prereq: at least one 100-level science course or permission of instructor. Prereq or coreq: GEOL 10100 or PGEOG 13000 or GEOG 22600 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
In this course students learn to think of Earth as a system of several components that interact with each other, sometimes in very complicated ways. The components of the Earth system that will be considered include the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, and the biosphere. While each of these components can, and should, be studied in more detail in separate courses, here the focus is on interactions between them.

PGEOG 25100 Earth System Science II -- 4 hrs, 3.5 cr. Prereq: PGEOG 25000 or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
The second part of a two-course sequence, students continue the objectives of PGEOG 25000, and learn about our planet as a system of interacting components, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. This course focuses primarily on the biosphere, paleoclimates, and the Arctic climate system.

PGEOG 31100 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: PHYS 12100 or PHYS 12000 and MATH 15500. GER 3/B.
Covers the basic principles of fluid mechanics including statics, kinematics of fluid motion, integral and differential representation of conservation of mass, linear momentum, the first Law of Thermodynamics, Bernoulli’s equation, dimensional analysis, and elementary viscous flow.

PGEOG 31300 Biogeography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: PGEOG 13000, GEOG 10100 or BIOL 10000/10200. GER 3/B.
Provides an understanding of the geographic distribution and temporal variability of biological diversity over the face of the Earth and the biotic and abiotic factors and processes underlying these patterns and dynamics. Completion of PGEOG 25000 / PGEOG 25100 and GTECH 37300 prior to enrollment is strongly recommended.

PGEOG 33200 Introduction to Hydrology -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 10100, PGEOG 13000, or permission of instructor. GER 3/B.
Designed to provide the basic understanding of how water on the Earth moves, distributes, circulates and interacts with the environment. Focus will be on hydrological processes including precipitation, evapotranspiration (evaporation and transpiration), soil water, ground water, and runoff, which form the complete water cycle at global, regional and watershed scales. The course will also cover some topics on how water responds to environmental changes and strategies of integrated water resources.

PGEOG 33500 Urban and Metropolitan Coasts -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 10100 or GEOG 10100. GER 3/B.
A systematic study of the natural and anthropogenic processes on urban coastal environments. Special emphasis on the coastline of the NY metropolitan area, with examples from coastal cities worldwide.

PGEOG 36100 Global Climatic Change -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: PGEOG 13000 or GEOL 10100 or GEOL 10500. Jr/Sr only. GER 3/B.
An intensive introduction to the study of climate change with emphasis on modern climate change, anthropogenic forcing and measured and predicted consequences of this forcing. Students will develop an understanding of natural climate forcing, natural variability and feedbacks in the climate system while concurrently studying the Earth’s climate history, and modern climate change.

PGEOG 36300 Environmental Hazards -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq or coreq: PGEOG 13000 or equivalent. GER 3/B.
The course, in response to actual and potential hazards, either natural or anthropogenic in origin, will investigate the processes that link fundamental social development to environmental processes that are influenced by human activities. Natural hazards, in many cases, augment the environmental fragility of our society and the consideration of environmental hazards needs to be incorporated into management of climate variability, storms, droughts, floods, earthquakes, etc. An aim is to seek preventive measures and find solutions to act on environmental hazards on national and international levels.

PGEOG 38100, 38200, 38300 Special Topics in Environmental Studies -- 1-4 hrs (lec or lec/lab), 1-3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 10500, GEOG 22600 or PGEOG 13000, one course of which special topic is logical outgrowth; permission of instructor. Jr/Sr only. GER 3/B.
Topics to be announced.

PGEOG 39100, 39200, 39300 Individual Study in Environmental Studies -- 1-3 cr. Prereq: GEOL 10500, GEOG 22600, PGEOG 13000, permission of department.
Individual studies and readings, with lab or fieldwork where appropriate, carried out under faculty guidance.

PGEOG 48000 Capstone in Physical Geography -- 3 hrs, 3 cr. Prereq: Senior standing as a geography or environmental studies major, approval of undergraduate adviser, and signed project contract with faculty sponsor.
Individual or group research project as capstone experience in physical or environmental geography.

PGEOG 49000 Honors in Environmental Studies -- 1 sem, 3 cr. Prereq: permission of department. Upper Jr/Sr environmental studies majors only.
Individual research to be carried out under faculty guidance. Results may be embodied in an honors essay or equivalent.

PGEOG 49800 Internship in Environmental Studies -- 1-4 cr. Upper Jr/Sr qualified environmental studies majors and minors only.
Opportunities for working in positions of responsibility in professional institutions for academic credit. See environmental studies faculty adviser.