**Moisture & Atmospheric Stability**

**
Minnesota Temperature Conversion Chart**

- hydrologic cycle
*precipitation**evaporation/transpiration/evapotranspiration**infiltration**runoff*

- The Miracle of Water
- water phases (states)
*solid**liquid**gas*

- latent/sensible heat
**latent heat of vaporization**- amount of heat necessary to change a substance from a liquid to a gas**latent heat of fusion -**amount of heat necessary to change a substance from a solid to a liquid

- evaporation/condensation
- sublimation/deposition
- phase changes
- phase change calculations (.pdf file)

**Humidity: Water Vapor in the Air**

Ways to express water-vapor (H_{2}O(g))
content of the air:

*absolute humidity**mixing ratio**vapor pressure**relative humidity**dew point*

Under standard conditions (25^{o}C, 1 atm), the
density of air is 1.168 kg/m^{3}. Therefore,

**1kg of air would have a volume of 0.8562m ^{3}. To summarize..... **

mass of water vapor (grams)

absolute humidity= ---------------------------------

volume of air (cubic meters)

mass of water vapor (grams)

mixing ratio= ---------------------------------

mass of dry air (kilograms)

partial pressures & Dalton's Law:the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture.

saturation - saturation mixing ratio graph

table of saturated mixing ratio

relative humidity calculations with a decrease in temperature

- natural changes in relative humidity
- dew-point temperature
- humidity measurement
- hygrometers
- psychrometers

- adiabatic cooling and condensation
- dry adiabatic lapse rate (
**DALR**) = 1.0^{o}C/100 meters / 5.5^{o}F/1000 feet - wet adiabatic lapse rate (
**WALR**) = 0.5^{ }- 0.9^{o}C/100 meters

- dry adiabatic lapse rate (

DALR = - 1.0

^{o}C/100m

LHC*= +0.5^{o}C/100m

-------------------

WALR = - 0.5^{o}C/100m

*Latent Heat of Condensation

- adiabatic temp change example (ELR/DALR/WALR (pdf download)

- processes that lift air
- humidity calculations
- humidity/adiabatic lapse rate calculations (download)