What Do Scientists Do?

• Scientists collect data and develop theories, models and laws about how nature works

• What is a hypothesis?
Answer: A hypothesis is an educated guess about what the answer to a question may be. The process of developing a hypothesis is guided by experience and knowledge and should be a statement of cause and effect that can be tested. A theory is a set of hypotheses.

• What is the role of hypotheses in science?
Answer: Hypotheses are essential in science. It is through using hypotheses, theory, research questions and the rigorous process of the scientific method that science can continue to advance.

• What is a theory?

Answer: is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and experimentation

• What is a model?
Scientific modeling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate. It requires selecting and identifying relevant aspects of a situation in the real world and then using different types of models for different aims, such as conceptual models to better understand, mathematical models to quantify, and graphical models to visualize the subject. Modeling is an essential and inseparable part of scientific activity, and many scientific disciplines have their own ideas about specific types of modeling.

• What is the relationship between hypotheses and models?
Hypotheses of specific observations and experiments allow the development of more generalized models to predict what will happen in some other place and time.

• What is a scientific law?

Answer: is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspects of the universe. A scientific law always applies under the same conditions, and implies that there is a causal relationship involving its elements.

Scientific Law vs. Theory: a law describes what nature does under certain conditions, and will predict what will happen as long as those conditions are met. A theory explains how nature works in a more general sense.

Examples:

• Big Bang Theory: A general statement of the origin of the universe.
• Hubble's Law of Cosmic Expansion: provides a concise method for measuring a galaxy's velocity in relation to our own.

• Science is a search for order in nature
• Scientific theories and laws are the most important results of science
• Scientific theory
• Widely tested
• Supported by extensive evidence
• Accepted by most scientists in a particular area