Extremophiles

TYPES:

 

Acidophile
An organism with optimal growth at pH levels of 3 or below
Alkaliphile
An organism with optimal growth at pH levels of 9 or above
Anaerobe
An organism that does not require oxygen for growth such as Spinoloricus Cinzia. Two sub-types exist: facultative anaerobe and obligate anaerobe. Facultative anaerobe can tolerate anaerobic and aerobic condition; however, an obligate anaerobe would die in presence of even trace levels of oxygen.
Cryptoendolith

An organism that lives in microscopic spaces within rocks, such as pores between aggregate grains; these may also be called Endolith, a term that also includes organisms populating fissures, aquifers, and faults filled with groundwater in the deep subsurface.

Halophile

An organism requiring at least 0.2M concentrations of salt (NaCl) for growth

Hyperthermophile
An organism that can thrive at temperatures between 80122 C, such as those found in hydrothermal systems
Hypolith

An organism that lives underneath rocks in cold deserts

Lithoautotroph
An organism (usually bacteria) whose sole source of carbon is carbon dioxide and exergonic inorganic oxidation (chemolithotrophs) such as Nitrosomonas europaea; these organisms are capable of deriving energy from reduced mineral compounds like pyrites, and are active in geochemical cycling and the weathering of parent bedrock to form soil
Metallotolerant

capable of tolerating high levels of dissolved heavy metals in solution, such as copper, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc; examples include Ferroplasma sp., Cupriavidus metallidurans and GFAJ-1.

Oligotroph
An organism capable of growth in nutritionally limited environments
Osmophile
An organism capable of growth in environments with a high sugar concentration
Piezophile
An organism that lives optimally at high hydrostatic pressure; common in the deep terrestrial subsurface, as well as in oceanic trenches
Polyextremophile
A polyextremophile (faux Ancient Latin/Greek for 'affection for many extremes') is an organism that qualifies as an extremophile under more than one category.
Psychrophile/Cryophile
An organism capable of survival, growth or reproduction at temperatures of -15 C or lower for extended periods; common in cold soils, permafrost, polar ice, cold ocean water, and in or under alpine snowpack
Radioresistant
Organisms resistant to high levels of ionizing radiation, most commonly ultraviolet radiation, but also including organisms capable of resisting nuclear radiation
Thermophile
An organism that can thrive at temperatures between 45122 C

 

 
 
 

 

Image result for yellowstone prismatic

 
 
Thermoacidophile
Combination of thermophile and acidophile that prefer temperatures of 7080 C and pH between 2 and 3
Xerophile

An organism that can grow in extremely dry, desiccating conditions; this type is exemplified by the soil microbes of the Atacama Desert

 

 

 

Tardigrades

Tardigrades are notable for being the most resilient animal:

They can survive extreme conditions that would be rapidly fatal to nearly all other known life forms.

  • They can withstand temperature ranges from 1 K (−458 F; −272 C) (close to absolute zero) to about 420 K (300 F; 150 C)
  • pressures about six times greater than those found in the deepest ocean trenches,
  • ionizing radiation at doses hundreds of times higher than the lethal dose for a human, and the vacuum of outer space.
  • They can go without food or water for more than 30 years, drying out to the point where they are 3% or less water, only to rehydrate, forage, and reproduce.