Acid soils characterized by a subsurface accumulation of humus with Al and Fe.

Typical soils of coniferous or boreal forests.

Typically form in coarse-textured parent material and have a light-colored E-horizon. E or eluviated (leached) A and B horizons have been leached of mineral or organic content.


Are naturally of low fertility and need lime to be productive agriculturally.








Central Michigan


Soils are on sandy glacial outwash plains.

Land uses are limited by the low native fertility of the soil.

Most cleared land is no longer in use.

Soil does support forest trees such as:

  • sugar maple
  • red maple
  • red pine
  • eastern hemlock



Northern New York


Soils found on dunes and sandy outwash plains in northern Michigan and New York.

Has a very distinct E horizon (gray) which is strongly cemented.