Chapter #2 - Maps

• Maps as a Tool of Geography
• Primary tool of spatial analysis
• Types of Maps
• Mental Maps - as a child, your mental maps were based on direct experience.....
• can be inconsistently detailed
• as you gain more knowledge your view becomes geocentric
• allows you to describe and determine:
• locations
• distances
• directions
• this visualization of space is based on Euclidian geometry
• E.G. parallel lines never cross
• the shortest distance is a straight line
• that space is three-dimensional
• It's difficult for most people to transform their mental map in a geometrically accurate manner. (Michigan mental map example)
• Cartographic Maps - a graphic representation of the environment
• vertical or oblique views of the environment
• created at a reduced scale
• created on a projection surface
• are generalized representations of the environment
• have symbols that represent the environment
• example map
• Topographic Maps - show natural features such as;
• mountains
• valleys
• plains
• lakes rivers
• vegetation

cultural features such as;

• boundaries
• buildings
• transmission lines

contour lines

• Thematic Maps - show a single type of feature that is the theme of the map.
• Oregon thematic maps:
• Persuasive Maps - used in decision making and propaganda
• What makes maps popular?
• Maps are convenient to use
• Maps simplify our surrounds
• Maps are credible
• Map Liabilities
• Simplicity means details are left out
• You should question the credibility of maps
• Some map features are;
• distortions
• others are errors
• still others have been omitted by oversight or design
• Maps are like statistics..... people can use them to show whatever they want.
• The Earth & Earth Coordinates
• we've know for over 2000 years the earth is spherical
• the Greek scholar Eratosthenes made the first scientifically based estimate of the earth's circumference

• Locating Points on a Sphere
• The Grid System (use racquet ball)
• Equator
• N/S Poles
• Prime Meridian (1884 Int'l Meridian Conference)
• Latitude & Longitude
• Putting latitude and longitude together into what is called a geographic coordinate (45oN, 120oW) pinpoints a place on the earth’s surface
• Our classroom (room G249) is located at:
• 40o 43' 44.39"N, 73o 35' 39.94"W
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• Time Zones
• First time zone established in England in 1847 by British railway companies.
• Last country to adopt time zones, Nepal in 1986
• Earth as an Oblate Spheroid
• Scholars assumed that the earth was a perfect sphere until the 1660s when Sir Isaac Newton developed the theory of gravity
• Scale
• RF –representative fraction
• 1:24,000
• 1:1,000,000
• scale bar or graphic scale
• verbal scale
• examples

• Map Projections
• area - some projections allow areas of regions to be in correct proportion. Called equal-area or equivalent projections.
• shape - shape can be preserved for small areas. True shape projections are called conformal.
• distance - equidistant projections.
• direction - azimuthal projections.

Projection distortions

• Remote Sensing (PowerPoint)
• GPS
• Geocaching (geocaching.com)
• Geographic Information Systems (GIS)